Many aspects of chemistry and biology are mediated by electromagnetic field (EMF) interactions. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly sensitive to EMF stimuli. Studies have explored the direct effect of different EMFs on the electrical properties of neurons in the last two decades, particularly focusing on the role of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). This work aims to systematically review published evidence in the last two decades detailing the effects of EMFs on neuronal ion channels as per the PRISM guidelines. Following a predetermined exclusion and inclusion criteria, 22 papers were included after searches on three online databases. Changes in calcium homeostasis, attributable to the voltage-gated calcium channels, were found to be the most commonly reported result of EMF exposure. EMF effects on the neuronal landscape appear to be diverse and greatly dependent on parameters, such as the field's frequency, exposure time, and intrinsic properties of the irradiated tissue, such as the expression of VGCs. Here, we systematically clarify how neuronal ion channels are particularly affected and differentially modulated by EMFs at multiple levels, such as gating dynamics, ion conductance, concentration in the membrane, and gene and protein expression. Ion channels represent a major transducer for EMF-related effects on the CNS.
brain | electromagnetic fields | electrophysiology | ion channels