The increased use of wireless technology causes a significant exposure increase for all living organisms to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). This comprises bacteria, animals, and also plants. Unfortunately, our understanding of how RF-EMF influences plants and plant physiology remains inadequate. In this study, we examined the effects of RF-EMF radiation on lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) in both indoor and outdoor environments using the frequency ranges of 1890–1900 MHz (DECT) at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz (Wi-Fi). Under greenhouse conditions, RF-EMF exposure had only a minor impact on fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics and no effect on plant flowering time. In contrast, lettuce plants exposed to RF-EMF in the field showed a significant and systemic decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and accelerated flowering time compared to the control groups. Gene expression analysis revealed significant down-regulation of two stress-related genes in RF-EMF-exposed plants: violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). RF-EMF-exposed plants had lower Photosystem II’s maximal photochemical quantum yield (FV/FM) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than control plants under light stress conditions. In summary, our results imply that RF-EMF might interfere with plant stress responses and reduced plant stress tolerance.