Objective: To examine the associations of mobile phone use and its use characteristics with new-onset CKD. Methods: 408,743 participants without prior CKD in the UK Biobank were included. The primary outcome was new-onset CKD. Results: During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, 10,797 (2.6%) participants occurred CKD. Compared with mobile phone non-users, a significantly higher risk of new-onset CKD was found in mobile phone users (HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13). Moreover, among mobile phone users, compared with participants with weekly usage time of mobile phone making or receiving calls <30 min, a significantly higher risk of new-onset CKD was observed in those with usage time ≥30 min (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07–1.18). Moreover, participants with both high genetic risks of CKD and longer weekly usage time of mobile phones had the highest risk of CKD. Similar results were found using the propensity score matching methods. However, there were no significant associations of length of mobile phone use, and hands-free device/speakerphone use with new-onset CKD among mobile phone users. Conclusion: Mobile phone use was significantly associated with a higher risk of new-onset CKD, especially in those with longer weekly usage time of mobile phones making or receiving calls. Our findings and the underlying mechanisms should be further investigated.