Background: The exposure of young people to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) has increased rapidly in recent years with their increased use of cellphones and use of cordless phones and WiFi. We sought to ascertain associations between New Zealand early-adolescents' subjective well-being and self-reported use of, or exposure to, wireless telephone and internet technology.
Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed questionnaires in class about their cellphone and cordless phone use, their self-reported well-being, and possible confounding information such as whether they had had influenza recently or had a television in the bedroom. Parental questionnaires provided data on whether they had WiFi at home and cordless phone ownership and model. Data were analysed with Ordinal Logistic Regression adjusting for common confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results: The number and duration of cellphone and cordless phone calls were associated with increased risk of headaches (>6 cellphone calls over 10 minutes weekly, adjusted OR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.8; >15 minutes cordless use daily adjusted OR 1.74, CI 1.1-2.9)). Texting and extended use of wireless phones was related to having a painful 'texting' thumb). Using a wired cellphone headset was associated with tinnitus (adjusted OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.3), while wireless headsets were associated with headache (adjusted OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.5), feeling down/depressed (adjusted OR 2.0, CI 1.1-3.8), and waking in the night (adjusted OR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.8). Several cordless phone frequencies bands were related to tinnitus, feeling down/depressed and sleepiness at school, while the last of these was also related to modulation. Waking nightly was less likely for those with WiFi at home (adjusted OR 0.7, CI 0.4-0.99). Being woken at night by a cellphone was strongly related to tiredness at school (OR 3.49, CI 1.97-6.2).
Conclusions: There were more statistically significant associations (36%) than could be expected by chance (5%). Several were dose-dependent relationships. To safeguard young people's well-being, we suggest limiting their use of cellphones and cordless phones to less than 15 minutes daily, and employing a speaker-phone device for longer daily use. We recommend parental measures are taken to prevent young people being woken by their cellphones.
Cellular telephone | Cordless telephone | Headache | Tinnitus | Sleep | Depression | Frequency-specific | Headset