Electromagnetic field exposure to the nervous system can cause neurological changes. The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, such as second-generation and third-generation radiation, have been studied in most studies. The current study aimed to explore fourth-generation cellular phone radiation on hippocampal morphology and behavior in mice. Swiss albino male mice (n = 30) were randomly categorized into 3 groups; control, 40 min, and 60 min exposure to 2400 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) daily for 60 days. The control mice were housed in the same environments but were not exposed to anything. Anxiety-like behaviors were tested using the elevated plus-maze. For histological and stereological examination, the brain was dissected from the cranial cavity. On Cresyl violet stained brain slices, the number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus were counted. In exposed mice compared to control mice, a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior has been observed. Histological observations have shown many black and dark blue cytoplasmic cells with shrunken morphology degenerative alterations in the neuronal hippocampus in the radiation exposed mice. In the RF-EMR mouse hippocampus, stereological analyses revealed a significant decrease in pyramidal and granule neurons compared to controls. Our findings suggest that 2400-MHz RF-EMR cell phone radiation affects the structural integrity of the hippocampus, which would lead to behavioral changes such as anxiety. However, it alerts us to the possible long-term detrimental effects of exposure to RF-EMR.
Electromagnetic fields | Mobile phone | Mice | Behavior | Hippocampus | Pyramidal neuron